Annex A - Peacekeeping Missions
UN Service Badge
Canadians are known throughout the word for our Peace Keeping, Peace Making and Humanitarian efforts. Despite the small size of our military, Canada presently provides about 10% of the world's police force. Most, but not all, of these missions are United Nations sponsored. The following members of the Communications and Electronics Branch and its predecessors gave their lives while on United Nations service:
|Signalman||W.B. Maddision||29 November||1952||Korea|
|Corporal||K.E. Pennell||15 June||1957||Middle East|
|Signalman||N.E. Mason||15 May||1958||Middle East|
|Sergeant||R.H. Moore||6 October||1960||Congo|
|Corporal||E. Olivier||9 December||1961||Middle East|
|Signalman||P.M. Crouse||19 August||1966||Middle East|
|Corporal||M.H.T. Kennington||9 August||1974||Middle East|
|Private||T.E. Abbott||14 June||1975||Middle East|
|Private||C.A. Dodge||2 July||1979||Middle East|
|Private||P.K. Porter||6 November||1980||Middle East|
|Master Corporal||M. McCrae||6 December||1986||Cyprus|
The famous "Blue Beret" of UN Service owes its development to a need to distinguish Canadian Peace Keepers from the similarly uniformed British Combatants of the 1956 war in Egypt. Lester B. Pearson, later Prime Minister of Canada, was awarded the NOBEL PEACE PRIZE for his concept of a UN Force separating the combatants (UNEF I). In 1988, UN peacekeepers were, themselves, awarded the NOBEL PEACE PRIZE. Many commemorate this by wearing the blue beret on Remembrance Day.
24 October has been designated "United Nations Day".
|1947 - 48||UNTCOK||UN TEMPORARY COMMISSION ON KOREA. Authorized 14 November 1947. Mandate: To supervise free and secret elections and to oversee the withdrawal of the occupation forces (USSR in the North, USA in the South).|
|1948 -||UNTSO||UN TRUCE SUPERVISORY ORGANIZATION MIDDLE EAST. Authorized 29 May 1948. Mandate: To assist the Mediator and the Truce Commission in supervising the observance of the truce in Palestine called for by Security Council. Duration: 11 June 1948 to date. Canada provides military observers. UN Expenditures from inception to 31 December 1989 were $310,521,300.|
|1948-||UNMOGIP||UN MILITARY OBSERVER GROUP INDIA-PAKISTAN. Authorized 21 April 1948. Mandate: To supervise, in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the cease-fire between India and Pakistan. Duration: 24 January 1949 to date. Canada provides aircraft support to move the headquarters annually. UN Expenditures from inception to 31 December 1989 were $67,709,300.|
|1950 - 54||UNSK||UN SERVICE IN KOREA. United Nations wartime service from 25 June 1950 until the armistice on 27 July 1953. Canada had the third largest contingent and 378 Canadian servicemen lost their lives in the fighting.|
|1953 -||UNCMAC||UN COMMAND MILITARY ARMISTICE COMMISSION KOREA. Formed on the signing of the Korean Armistice Agreement on 27 July 1953.|
|1956 - 67||UNEF I||UN EMERGENCY FORCE EGYPT. Authorized 4 November 1956. Mandate: To secure and to supervise the cessation of hostilities, including the withdrawal of French, Israeli and the United Kingdom troops from Egyptian territory and, after the withdrawal, to serve as a buffer between Egyptian and Israeli forces. Ceased operations 17 June 1967.|
|1958 - 59||UNOGILI||UN OBSERVER GROUP IN LEBANON. Authorized 11 June 1958. Mandate: To ensure that there was no illegal infiltration of personnel or supply of arms or other materiel across the Lebanese borders. Ceased operations 9 December 1958.|
|1960 - 64||ONUC||ORGANIZATION OF UN IN CONGO. Authorized 14 July 1960. Mandate: To ensure the withdrawal of Belgian Forces, to assist the Congolese government in maintaining law and order, to maintain territorial integrity and the political independence of the Congo, to prevent civil war and to remove foreign and paramilitary forces not under UN command. Ceased operations 30 June 1964. UN expenditures were $400,130,793. (1st Canadian draft received UNOGIL ribbon with Congo bar).|
|1962 - 63||UNTEA||UN TEMPORARY EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY WEST NEW GUINEA (WEST IRIAN). Authorized 21 September 1962. Mandate: To maintain peace and security in the territory under the UNTEA established by Indonesia and the Netherlands. Ceased operations 20 April 1963. All Costs were born by Indonesia and the Netherlands.|
|1963 - 64||UNYOM||UN YEMAN OBSERVER MISSION. Authorized 11 June 1963. Mandate: To observe and certify the implementation of the disengagement agreement between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Republic (Egypt). Ceased operations 4 September 1964. All costs borne by Saudi Arabia and Egypt.|
|1965 - 93||UNFICYP||UN FORCE IN CYPRUS. Authorized 4 March 1964. The original mandate was: in the interest of preserving international peace and security, to use its best efforts to prevent reoccurrence of fighting and, as necessary to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and a return to normal conditions. Since 1974 it was also to supervise the cease-fire line and maintain a buffer zone between the lines of Cyprus National Guard and of Turkish and Turkish/Cypriot forces. Canada provided soldiers on infantry duties and augmentation to the British signal squadron which provided the UN force communications. Canadians ceased augmenting the Signal Squadron on 17 December 1992 and the last Canadians (2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery) handed over their responsibilities at 1159 hours 15 June 1993 and then departed. UN costs, paid by voluntary contributions by participating members, to 1992 were $635.7 million.|
|1965 - 66||DOMREP||MISSION OF THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Authorized 14 May 1965. Mandate: To observe the situation and report on breaches of the cease-fire between the two rival factions involved in the civil war. Ceased operations 22 October 1966. UN costs were $275,831.|
|1965 - 66||UNIPOM||UN INDIA-PAKISTAN OBSERVER MISSION. Authorized 20 September 1965. Mandate: To supervise the cease-fire along the India/Pakistan border except the state of Jammu and Kashmir (UNMOGIP territory) and the withdrawal of all armed personnel to the positions they held before 5 August 1965. Ceased operations 22 March 1966. UN costs were $1,713,280. (UNMOGIP personnel wore the same ribbon).|
|1973 - 79||UNEF II||UN EMERGENCY FORCE EGYPT. Authorized 25 October 1973. Mandate: To supervise the cease-fire between Egyptian and Israeli Forces following the 18 January 1974 and 8 September 1974 agreements and to supervise the redeployment of both Egyptian and Israeli Forces, man and control the buffer zone. Ceased operations 24 July 1979. UN costs were $446,487,000.|
|1974 -||UNDOF||UN DISENGAGEMENT OBSERVER FORCE GOLAN HEIGHTS. Authorized 31 May 1974. Mandate: To supervise the cease-fire between Israel and Syria and to supervise their forces on either side of a buffer zone in accordance with the Agreement on Disengagement between Israel and Syria. Canada provides communications, logistics and technical support for the force. UN costs from inception to 31 May 1991 were $473.1 million.|
|1978||UNIFIL||UN INTERIM FORCE IN LEBANON. Authorized 19 March 1978. Mandate: To confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Southern Lebanon, to restore peace and security and assist the Government of Lebanon in maintain authority in the area. UN cost were $1,762.9 million.|
|1988 - 90||UNGOMAP||UN GOOD OFFICES MISSION IN AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN. Authorized 25 April 1988. Mandate: To assist the Secretary-General's representative in ensuring the Agreements relating to Afghanistan and to investigate and report on violations regarding the Agreement. Ceased operations 15 March 1990. UN costs were $14,029,010.|
|1988 -||OSGAP||OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY GENERAL IN AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN. Canada provides one observer to assist in planning any future peace keeping operations in Afghanistan.|
|1988 - 91||UNIIMOG||UN MILITARY OBSERVER GROUP IN IRAN/IRAQ. Authorized 9 August 1988. Mandate: To verify, confirm and supervise the cease-fire and withdrawal of all forces to the internationally recognised boundaries. Ceased operations 20 February 1991. UN costs were $172.9 million.|
|1989 - 90||UNTAG||UN TRANSITION ASSISTANCE GROUP (NAMIBIA). Authorized 16 February 1989. Mandate: To assist the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to ensure early independence of Namibia through elections under the supervision and control of the UN. Ceased operations 21 March 1990. UN costs were $385.5 million.|
|1989 - 92||ONUCA||CENTRAL AMERICA UN OBSERVER GROUP. Authorized 7 November 1989. Mandate: To play a part in the demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance and to monitor the cease-fire and repatriation of forces. Ceased operation 31 January 1992. Cost to the UN to November 1990-$56.9 million.|
|1989 -||UNAVEM||UN ANGOLA VERIFICATION MISSION. Authorized 20 December 1988. Mandate: To verify the redeployment northwards and phased and total withdrawal of Cuban troops from the territory of Angola in accordance with the timetable agreed to between Angola and Cuba. Canada provided 15 observers for the Mission commencing in June 1991. UN costs from inception to 2 August 1991 were $19.1 million.|
|1990 - 91||ONUVEH||UN OBSERVER GROUP FOR THE VERIFICATION OF THE ELECTIONS IN HAITI. Authorized 10 October 1990. Mandate: To observe the electoral process in Haiti, assist in electoral security plans and observe its implementation. Ceased operation February 1991. The UN cost was $3.5 million.|
|1991 -||ONUSAL||MISSION DE OBSERVADORES DE LOS NATIONES UNIDES EN EL SALVADOR (UN OBSERVER GROUP IN EL SALVADOR). Formed to monitor the cease-fire in El Salvador following 12 years of civil war. Canada provides observers.|
|1991 -||MINURSO||UN MISSION FOR THE REFERENDUM IN WESTERN SAHARA. Authorized 29 April 1991. Mandate: With the full support of the Security Council and with the full cooperation of the two parties to effect a cessation of all hostile acts. Canada provides observers and movement control personnel. The full cooperation of the neighbouring countries was to be assured. UN cost $180,617,00.|
|1991 -||UNIKOM||UN IRAQ/KUWAIT OBSERVER MISSION. Authorized 3 April 1991. Mandate: To monitor the Knor Abdullah waterway between Iraq and Kuwait and a demilitarized zone ten kilometres into Iraq and five kilometres into Kuwait, to deter violations of the boundary, carry out surveillance and observe any hostile action. Canada provides mine clearance and unexploded ordnance disposal duties. Cost to the UN was $61 million.|
|1991 -||UNSCOM||UN SUPERVISORY COMMISSION IN IRAQ. Supervision of the terms of the peace accord folowing the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.|
|1992 -||UNPROFOR||UN PROTECTION FORCE
UNPROFOR I, commencing in 1992, involved the protection of Croat and Serbian minorities within Croatia.
UNPROFOR II was formed to protect convoys in support of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and for peace keeping duties in Macedonia.
OPERATION SHARP GUARD was the naval blockade of Yugoslavia which took place in the Adriatic Sea. Canadian involvement inclused HMCS Halifax (FHH 330)(2 April - 9 September 1994 and HMCS Toronto (FHH 333)(9 September 1994 - ).
|1992 - 95||UNOSOM||UN OPERATION IN SOMALIA
UNOSOM I involved the airlift of supplies and humanitarian relief, The Canadian component, designation OPERATION DELIVERANCE, involved deployment of a 900 man contingent and of HMCS Preserver as well as Hercules transport aircraft. On 30 May 1993, after six months, the Canadian UNOSOM contingent handed their responsibilities over to UNOSOMII forces from other countries and returned to Canada.
UNOSOM II involved follow on humanitarian assistance. It ended on 28 February 1995 as the last United Nations troops were withdrawn from the country. While the impact of the earlier famine had been generally overcome no political success was gained by the mission and Somolia continued its internal strife with no central government having emerged.
|1992 -||UNTAC||UN TRANSITIONAL AUTHORITY IN CAMBODIA. Formed to monitor the cease-fire in Cambodia. Canadians conducted naval patrols and provide mine awareness training.|
|1993||ONUMOZ||MOZAMBIQUE. Formed to monitor elections and provide humanitarian aid following the 16 year civil war in Mozambique. In this mission the UN troops had UN authority to disarm both sides prior to elections.|
|1993 - 95||UNAMIR||UN ASSISTANCE MISSION IN RWANDA. Established in
October 1993 to monitor a ceasefire in Rwanda. On 6 April 1994 the death of
the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi in an aircraft crash sent Rwanda into
a frenzy of slaugher and civil war. Since then UNAMIR has been involved in
humitarian aid. The first Canadian Humanitarian aid flight took place on 11
OPERATION SCOTCH which started on 11 April 1994 involved 312 Hercules C-130 flights to Kigali Rwanda or to Goma Zaire to deploy 1 Canadian Division Headquarters and Signal Regiment to UNAMIR. The main body of the Regiment returned home at the end of January 1995.
OPERATION PASSAGE deployed 2 Field Ambulance for humanitarian flights for UNHCR or CIDA from April to October 1994. 8 Air Communications and Control Squadron (8ACCS) was deployed at Nairobi Kenya and Kigali. On 16 September 1994 the Kigali airport was turned over to civilian control and by 28 September 8 ACCS had returned to Canada.
|1994||MOGDR||MULTINATIONAL OBSERVER GROUP IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 13 Canadian officers deployed from 1 to 30 September 1994 on OPERATION CADENCE to assist along with officers from Argentina, Brazil and the United States in the patrolling of the Dominican Republic/Haiti border. the operation was suspended following the American invasion of Haiti.|
|1994||OPERATION FORWARD ACTION was the UN blockade of Haiti. Canadian participants were HMCS Terra N ova (DD 259)(13 September - 19 October 1994) and HMCS Kootenay (DD258) ( - 30 September 1994). Canadians made 9,424 hailings, 1,388 armed boardings and diverted 119 ships from making proscribed deliveries to Haiti.|
|1954 - 73||ICSC||INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR SUPERVISION AND CONTROL CAMBODIA, LAOS AND VIETNAM Authorized under the Geneva Accords 20 - 21 July 1954 to ensure the cease fire was obeyed, to assist in restoring order as military forces transferred to their respective areas and to control the entry of unauthorized military personnel and war materiel. Ceased to function in all areas 17 June 1974.|
|1968 - 69||OTN||OBSERVER TEAM TO NIGERIA. Authorized September 1968 to observe the Nigerian Armed Forces to ascertain if they were following their own code of conduct and to investigate charges that the military was guilty of genocide. Ceased operations in 1970.|
|1973||ICCS||INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR CONTROL AND SUPERVISION SOUTH VIETNAM. Authorized in January 1973 to monitor the cease fire in South Vietnam, supervise the exchange of prisoners and to ensure no build up of military equipment. Canada ceased operations in July 1973.|
|1987 -||MFO||MULTINATIONAL FORCE AND OBSERVERS SINAI PENINSULA EGYPT. Authorized 26 March 1979 to supervise the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Sinai and to monitor Egyptian and Israeli compliance with the 1979 Peace Treaty. Canada provides observers in the Sinai. Costs are shared between the United States, Egypt and Israel ($90 million per year).|
|1992 -||ECMMY||EUROPEAN COMMUNITY MONITORING MISSION IN YUGOSLAVIA. Formed to monitor the cease-fire(s). This primarily European Community mission operated independent of the United Nations. Canada provides observers.|
Canadians have also served with other international bodies and earned Canadian, Commonwealth or foreign awards. These include:
- 1950-54: Korea Medal (Commonwealth)
- 1950-54: Canadian Volunteer Service Medal Korea (awarded 1991)
- 1989-90: Gulf and Kuwait Medal (with clasp for period of hostilities)
- 1989-90: Special Service Medal, Pakistan
- 1993: Special Service Medal with bars for:
- UN service for which no UN medal exists;
- NATO service in Europe