Annex F - Post World War II Radar
In 1951, the Pinetree Radar Line construction commenced as a joint Canada - USA project. Radar early warning stations were placed to counter the Soviet air threat against North America. This later became part of the joint US-Canada North American Air Defence (NORAD) System. Initially the radar stations were fully manual air defence systems with both aircraft control and early warning functions. The stations were organized into geographical sectors.
In 1954 it was decided to partly automate the Pinetree system and the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) System was introduced. This system was introduced in the early 1960s and utilized computers to do routine functions while retaining human decision making.
In 1957 there were 39 Pinetree sites.
NORAD was established 12 September 1957 but it was not until 12 May 1958 that Canada and the United States signed the North American Air Defence (NORAD) Command Agreement to coordinate the defence of North America.
In 1958 the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment System (SAGE) was added to the system.
By the mid 1960s the Pinetree line consisted of four administrative groupings of stations:
- Group l sites funded and manned by the USAF and located in the Goose Sector;
- Group II sites funded by the USAF and manned by RCAF;
- Group III sites other than Group I funded and manned by USAF; and
- Group IV sites funded and manned by RCAF.
The 1960 period CADIN/Pinetree upgrades involved:
- establishment of a Combat Centre- Direction Centre in the Ottawa Air Defence Sector (ADS);
- SAGE tie-in of 25 existing radars of the Pinetree Line (The Goose NORAD Sector remained a manual system and was not included in the upgrade);
- establishment of seven new heavy radars in Canada and SAGE tie-in;
- establishment of 45 gap filler radars in Canada and SAGE tie-in (35 RCAF responsibility and 10 USAF responsibility);
- construction and provision for essential ancillary equipment; and
- establishment of two BOMARC missile sites in Canada (La Macaza and North Bay).
In 1979 the older, tube technology computer system in North Bay was replaced. 900 pounds of high technology replaced 350 tons of the old.
In 1981, in a further realignment of stations western Canada commenced reporting to North Bay rather than to the previous (American ) sector stations.
In 1985 the new North Warning system became operational. It comprised 13 long range radar sites (11 in Canada of which 8 were old sites) and 39 short range radar sites (26 in Canada). Portions of the Pinetree system were incorporated into the new North Warning system.
POST WWII RADAR STATIONS IN CANADA
As part of the original agreement between the United States and Canada the USAF was to fund and man some sites while the RCAF did others. While the eventual system did not conform exactly to the agreement the stations identified in that original agreement are prefixed by:
- AC&W - Air Control and Warning Squadron
- GCI - Ground Control Intercept
- LRR - Long Range Radar
- Site numbers - M series numbers were equipment transportable sites although not actually mobile
|Gander||Nfl||C-25||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 226 AC&W|
|Nfld||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 642 Sqn USAF US designation Redcliffe. Renamed Saint Johns by RCAF|
|Stephenville||Nfld||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 640 Sqn USAF|
|Labrador||C-24||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. US designation Melville. Constructed 1953. Melville Manual NORAD Control Centre (MNCC). 641 AC&W Sqn USAF. Handed over to RCAF 1 July 1971. Renamed Goose Bay by RCAF. In July 1975 it became a limited long range radar.|
|Saglek Harbour||Labrador||C-24||USAF. Deactivated in 1960s|
|St Anthony||Nfld||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 921 Sqn USAF|
|Cartwright||Labrador||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. USAF. Deactivated in 1960s|
|Hopedale||Nfld||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. USAF. Deactivated in 1960s|
|Hebron||Nfld||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned|
|Burwell||Nfld||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned|
|NWT||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned (US designation (Resolution). Deactivated in 1960s|
|Sydney||NS||C-34||Pinetree site. Originally Canadian funded and manned|
|NS||C-11||Pinetree site. Originally Canadian funded and manned. Originally designated "Halifax" in early planning|
|Originally a temporary movable site in 26 NORAD Region, 672 AC&W USAF - activated 8 November 1956 at Syracuse NY. It was constructed as part of a radar augmentation program, contract let in 1955. Taken over by RCAF 1 Jun 1962. 23 AC&W Sqn RCAF. 11 Rdr Sqn|
|Sable Island||NS||Survey was done and site considered but the station was never built|
|Chatham||NB||1949-53||Canadian built and manned Pinetree site. 21 Rdr Sqn formed at Chatham in 1949 then moved to St Margarets in 1953|
|St Margarets||NB||1953-88||C-5||21 Rdr Sqn was originally established in 1949 at RCAF Station Chatham. In 1950 construction of St Margarets began and it was officially activated 1 Nov 1953. GCI station HQ for Fredericton Sector. Late 1963 remote GATR facility was established. In 1967 Chatham took over administration control and 21 Rdr Sqn became an integral unit of Chatham. Official closure was 1 April 1988|
|Moisie||Que||1953-88||C-33||Taken over by RCAF 30 June 1953. Official closure 31 May 1988|
|Mont Apica||Que||1952-90||C-1||Pinetree site. Original Canadian funded and manned. Operational in July 1952. GCI & Warning Rdr. New role as LRR in 1960. Officially closed June 1990|
|Que||1952-90||C-1||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned. First Pinetree station completed. Originally designated Radio Station Lac St-Joseph and renamed Lac St-Denis in 1952. No 1 Radio Station. 202 AC&W Sqn. Became a SAGE station in 1962. 11 Rdr Sqn|
|Ste Marie||Que||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned|
|Clark City||Que||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned|
|McCarty||Que||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned|
|St Sylvestre||Que||13 Rdr Sqn|
|Senneterre||Que||1953-88||C-8||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned. On 15 August 1950 construction began on Mount Bell near Senneterre. Operational 1 June 1953. Upgraded to a SAGE site between 1960-62. Designated 34 AC&W at that time. From 1967 - 73 it was the alternate command post (ALCOP) should North Bay be knocked out. In 1973 it reverted to ordinary Long Range Radar site. Redesignated a Canadian Forces Station on integration. In 1982 it became a French language unit. 34 Rdr Sqn|
|Chibougamau||Que||1962-88||C-42||Pinetree station announced in 1958, constructed summer 1960 - 1 Oct 62. Officially opened 1 May 1962. 10 Radar Squadron. 1 October 1963 converted to SAGE. Became CFS Chibougamau on 6 September 1967. Operated radio station CHIB from 11 February 1963 until 31 October 1984|
|Parent||Que||14 Rdr Sqn|
|Foymount||Ont||C-3||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned|
|Edgar||Ont||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned. 34 AC&W-3 ACC|
|Falconbridge||Ont||19??-86||C-9||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned|
|Trenton||Ont||M-102||Temporary movable site planned in 1952. Originally planned for installation at Trenton to fill a gap between Watertown New York and Edgar Ontario. It was deemed unnecessary in 1953. Unit number M-102 reused at Barrington|
|Wiarton||Ont||M-104||Temporary movable site planned in 1952|
|Sultan||Ont||M-107||Temporary movable site planned in 1952|
|Mattawa||Ont||M-108||Temporary movable site planned in 1952|
|Marathon||Ont||M-120||Temporary movable site planned in 1952|
|Originally designated for a temporary movable site in 1952. 639 Sqn USAF. US designation Oba. Site renamed Lowther when taken over by Canada on 1 July 1963 and unit renamed 36 Rdr Sqn|
|Raymore||Ont||19??-74||C-10||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. Taken over by RCAF 1 Jan 1962. 35 Rdr Sqn|
|Moosonee||Ont||C-44||Originally Mid Canada|
|Armstrong||Ont||C-15||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 914 AC&W USAF. Taken over by RCAF 1 Nov 1962|
|Sioux Lookout||Ont||1953-87||C-16||Pinetree site. Contract for construction let in 1951. Originally USAF funded and manned. 5 December 1952 915th AC&W arrived from US and was operational by April 1953. Taken over by RCAF 1 Oct 1962|
|Pagwa River||Ont||C-14||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 913 AC&W USAF. US designation Pagwa. Taken over by RCAF 1 Jun 1963|
|Beausejour||Man||19??-86||C-17||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 916 AC&W USAF. Taken over by RCAF 1 Oct 1961|
|Yorkton||Sask||1963-86||C-51||Pinetree site in 24 NORAD Region. Officially opened 21 January 1963. 46 Rdr Sqn|
|Dana||Sask||19??-87||C-52||Pinetree site in 24 NORAD Region. Officially opened 21 January 1963. 46 Rdr Sqn|
|Alsask||Sask||1962-87||C-53||Pinetree site in 24 NORAD Region built in 1962. Closed in 1987|
|Penhold||Alta||1964-86||C-54||Pinetree site in 24 NORAD Region. 43 Rdr Sqn was established in February 1964|
|Cold Lake||Alta||C-36||42 AC&W Sqn became operational in June 1955. 42 Rdr Sqn|
|Alta||19??-88||C-21||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. American designation was Saskatoon Mountain. 919 AC&W USAF. Taken over by RCAF 1 Apr 1963|
|Baldy Hughes||BC||19??-88||C-20||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 918 AC&W USAF. Taken over by RCAF 1 Mar 1963|
|BC||C-19||Pinetree site. Originally USAF funded and manned. 917 AC&W USAF. US designation Puntzi. Taken over by RCAF 1 Feb 1963|
|Originally US funded and manned. 825 AC&W USAF. Taken over by RCAF on 1 Apr 1962|
|Holberg||BC||C-18||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned. 53 Rdr Sqn|
|Comox||BC||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned|
|Tofino||BC||Pinetree site originally Canadian Funded and manned|
|Vancouver||BC||Pinetree site originally Canadian funded and manned|
|North Bay||Ont||22 Radar Control Wing|
MID CANADA LINE
This was a doppler radar electronics fence, nicknamed the "McGill Fence" along the 55th parallel. There was a maximum of 27 stations along the system by 1957. Unmanned stations brought this up to 98 sites. Stations included:
- Goose Bay
- Great Whale River
- Cranberry Portage
- Flin Flon
On 1 January 1958, the Mid Canada Line, an air defence early warning line along the 55th parallel, became operational. The line peaked at 8 sector stations and 90 unmanned doppler detection stations with a final estimated cost of $224,566,830.
In January 1964 the western half of Mid Canada Line closed. In April 1965 the eastern half of Mid Canada Line closed. This completed the closing of this line which was considered not cost effective. Some stations were retained and integrated into the upgraded CADIN/Pinetree line.
In 1952, the Distant Early Warning (DEW) line project was initiated with the Bell System as primary contractor and Western Electric assigned the job as PROJECT 572. The first and test station was Barter Island, part of the initial Alaska Experimental Line which opened in 1953. The system ran roughly along the 70th parallel and peaked at 70 sites subsequently reduced to 31 sites between 1962-83 due to technology improvements.
On 21 February 1955 the United States Air Force made the first official announcement that Western Electric Company had been awarded the contract to build the DEW Line at about $500,000,000. Canadian subcontractors for western portion were Northern Construction Ltd and James W Stewart Ltd of Vancouver. The eastern contractor was Foundation Company of Canada. It was operational by 1956.
At 0830 hours, 8 July 1955, the first Canadian unloading of DEW line sup-plies was done by helicopters of HMCS Labrador at Cape Fisher. This was the only recorded incident of Canadian military aircraft being used to assist in the construction of the DEW line. All other Canadian aircraft involved were civilian owned and contracted by the United States Air Force.
In 1960 Canadian National Telecommunications installed a tropospheric scatterwave (troposcatter) system to link up with Distant Early Warning (DEW) line stations in Canada's north. This was also a United States Department of Defence contract. It also, in the process, improved civilian communications in the North.
DEW Line stations are American funded and primarily staffed by civilians on contract to the United States Air Force however there is a token Canadian military presence at those stations located in Canada. The DEW Line stations inside Canada included:
- DYE - Cape Dyer - with sub stations 1 to 5
- FOX - Hall Beach - with sub stations 1 to 6
- CAM - Cambridge Bay - with sub stations 1 to 5
- PIN - Cape Perry - with sub stations 1 to 6
- PIN - Cape Perry - with sub stations 1 to 6
Sub-stations were located at:
- Broughton Island
- MacKar Inlet
- Jenny Lind Island
- Clinton Point
- Cape Hooper
- Pelly Bay
- Byron Bay
- Nicholson Penninsula
- Dewer Lakes
- Shepherd Bay
- Lady Franklin
- Longstaff Bluff
- Gladman Point
- Cape Young
- Shingle Point
- Komakuk Beach